- Elkanah was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first, Samuel. Elkanah is a bigamist, his other wife, less favoured but bearing more children, was named Peninnah. The names of Elkanah's other children apart from Samuel are not given. Elkanah plays only a minor role in the narrative, and is mostly a supporting character to Eli, Hannah, and Samuel.
Elkanah was the son of Jeroham, who was the son of Elihu, who was the son of Tohu, who was the son of Zuph. Elkanah is described as having originated from Zuph, specifically Ramathaim-Zophim, which was part of the tribal lands of Ephraim; however, the Books of Chronicles state that he was a Levite living amongst Ephraim rather than a member of Ephraim itself.
- 1st Samuel 3:5 he gave Hannah a special portion because he loved her very much, even though the LORD had given her no children.
- 1st Samuel 1:1 was a man named Elkanah who lived in Ramah in the hill country of Ephraim. He was the son of Jeroham and grandson of Elihu, from the family of Tohu and the clan of Zuph.
- 1st Samuel 1:11 she made this vow: "O LORD Almighty, if you will look down upon my sorrow and answer my prayer and give me a son, then I will give him back to you. He will be yours for his entire lifetime, and as a sign that he has been dedicated to the LORD, his hair will never be cut."
- 1st Samuel 3:4 the day Elkanah presented his sacrifice, he would give portions of the sacrifice to Peninnah and each of her children.
- Lord God possesses